URBAN AND RURAL LIFE
Did you live in a village, a town or a big city? Where would you prefer to live? Why?
Read the text and find Ukrainian equivalents to words in bold type.
TOWN AND COUNTRY
Today people all over the world are moving out of small hamlets and villages in the country to big, noisy cities. They are moving from the peaceful hillsand mountains, fields and plains, valleys, riversand streams of the countryside to the busy world of overcrowded streets, buildings and traffic. This movement from rural areas to urban areas has been going on for over two hundred WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK years.
In many countries, the main reason people come to live in towns and cities is work. After one or two large factories have been built in or near a town, people come to find work, and soon an industrial area begins to grow. There is usually a residential area nearby, where the factory workers can live. The inhabitantsneed schools, hospitals and shops, so more people come to live in the area to provide these services – and so the city grows and develops.
Life in the city was never very easy, but the Industrial Revolution made 19th-century cities almost WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK uninhabitable. Most city dwellers were overworked, underfed, and poorly housed. While in earlier times wealthy people usually lived in the centre of the city, during the nineteenth century rich people began to move to the outer areas. The poor people, who had no means of transportation, were forced in the highly polluted central areas.
Most modern cities have paved roads, sidewalks, electric lights. Improvements are still being made. The main problems are overpopulation, crime, poverty, and water pollution.
In every major city in the world, there is a business district where the big companies have their main offices. In WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK the United States, their area is usually in the city centre downtown. It is here that you can see the huge skyscraper office blocks springing up. The people who work here often travel a long way to work each day. Many of them live in the suburbsof the city, far away from the industrial area and the city centre.
But what is the future of the big cities? Will they continue to get bigger and bigger? Perhaps not. Some major cities have actually become smaller in the last ten years, as people are also moving out of major cities WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK back into provincial areas.
Decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F) according to the passage.
1. Many people from small villages go to live in big cities.
2. Urban areas contain mainly hills, mountains, rivers and streams.
3. Many people go to live in urban areas to find schools.
4. Plants are built inside residential areas.
5. Business districts are usually in the city centres.
6. Workers in the city centres often live in the skyscrapers in suburbs.
7. The suburbs of a city usually contain more trees, parks and gardens than the city centres.
8. The movement from country to city will WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK definitely continue in the future.
Look at these pairs of items. Decide which is larger in size and put a cross (x) next to it. Explain your decision.
Example: hill – mountain x, as hill is usually just a rounded natural elevation of land lower than a mountain.
|1. settlement – town 2. city – business district 3. field – countryside 4. urban area – city centre 5. skyscraper – residential area||6. river – stream 7. park - garden 8. shop – department store 9. factory – industrial area 10.rural area – farm|
Look at the list of buildings below.
a.write (H) next to those buildings which can be people’s homes;
b.write WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK (A) next to those buildings which are ancient and (N) next to those which are new;
c.explain what these buildings are used for.
Example: Monastery (H) (A) - an establishment in which members of a religious community (as of monks) live and carry on their work.
Read the text and say what are the advantages and disadvantages of living in cities.
BIG CITIES :
WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK
We hear a WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK lot of these days about the problems of living in cities: crimes, pollution, crowds, and so on. This article tells about one married couple who grew tired of these problems and left the city, and another couple who grew tired of living in the suburbs and moved back into the city.
It was a difficult decision for Stieve and Joyce Lemons to move away from the neighbourhood where they both were raised in Chicago. About six years ago, the Lemonses began to have doubts about the quality of life in their old neighbourhood. Families who had been there WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK for a long time began moving away. Many homes were changed into appartments. Property values decreased as welfare families and illegal immigrants moved into the neighbourhood. Crime increased.
The Lemonses made their decision. They bought a home twenty-five miles outside the city. It is located on several acres of land, which Joyce calls ”Our own small corner of the world where no one bothers us.” The house payments are three times more than the city rent but Steve says it’s well worth it. Also, he can’t help admiring the quietness of country lanes, walksand paths, and WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK isn’t even upset when his car gets into a road pothole. He adds, “Never under any circumstances would I move back into the city. I would change jobs and leave the state first.”
When Mr and Mrs Cox decided to move into a condominium on the lake in Chicago, they wondered if this would make life more difficult for their sons. The boys were used to a large house, a yard, a good public school, and friends who all lived nearby in South Holland, Illinois. The Coxes do not regret their decision to leave their hometown. The boys swim WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK in an outdoor poolat their building. They take art classes given at a huge park next to the lake. The public school they attend is considered one of Chicago’s best.
Mrs Cox says she actually feels safer in her new home than in South Holland, where she was afraid to go out for a walk alone after dark. “Here, streets, alleys and avenues are well lighted, and there are always policemen around,” she says. “The fact that people are out at all hours in this area makes you safe.” Mr Cox works at the real estate WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK company that owns the condominium that the family lives in. He hated commuting from South Holland, a ninety-minute drive to his city office.
Grocery shopping is easier now for Mrs Cox. A store in the appartment building fills immediate. Costs are more reasonable at a supermarket that is within walking distance. “We sold our second car,” says Mrs Cox. “I walk everywhere. I think it’s healthy. In the suburbs I was always driving them somewhere. There wasn’t much time to develop my own interests.” And both parents have more time to spend with their children. “We feel more WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK like a family now,” says Mrs Cox.
Choose right answers to the following questions or find the right end of the statements.
1. What is the main idea of the article?
a. Big cities are bad places to live.
b. Some people are happy living in cities and some are not.
c. There is a lot of crime in cities.
2. The Lemonses want to stay in their neighbourhood because
a. families began to move away.
b. property values decreased.
c. they were raised in that neighbourhood.
3. They decided to leave because
a. they didn’t feel safe in the WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK city.
b. the city rent was very expensive.
c. Steve wanted to change jobs.
4. The Coxes were worried about their sons because
a. the boys swim in an outdoor pool.
b. the boys play in the park.
c. the boys were used to a large house.
5. Mr Cox is happy because
a. he doesn’t have to commute any more.
b. he has a better job.
c. the food prices are cheaper in the city.
Answer the following questions, then discuss your answers with your classmates.
1. What is the worst thing about living in cities?
a) heavy traffic b) brokenstreet lamps c) street WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK clocks which are always slow d) other
2. What is the best thing about living in cities?
a) You can find a new job from an advertising pillar b) There are interesting activities (movies, restaurants, and so on) c) Nobody cares what you do d) other
3. What is the best thing about living in the suburbs?
a) You have more room (a big house or a yard, for example) b) The smell of trees and flowers c) Few pedestrians d) other
4. What is the worst thing about living in the suburbs?
a) You have to commute to work b) Pavementsand kerbstone roads WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK are quite rare c) You have to go everywhere by car d) other
5. Are cities good places for children?
a) yes b) no c) sometimes d) other
6. What would you look for first in deciding to move to a new area?
a) an appartment with a low rent b) a neighbourhood with pretty house c) good schools d) other
7. Most people live in cities because
a) their jobs are there b) they like interesting activities c) they find the people who live there interesting d) other
Choose one of the following situations to act out.
1. The Lemonses are explaining to their WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK two daughters why they have to move out of the city.
2. Mr and Mrs Cox’s two boys are telling their parents how they feel about living in the city.
3. A real estate agent is trying to rent the Lemons’s old appartment to a young married couple. The couple are asking questions about the neighbourhood.
4. A reporter is talking to a group of people who live in a city “slum” (poor, rundown neighborhood) about why they dislike living there.
Fill in the correct preposition for each blank space
1.People who make their decisions to move . . . . . . cities have two main reasons WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK: inner-city crime and bad schools. 2.It was difficult for my family to move . . . . . . the neighbourhood where my parents were raised . . . New York. 3.Five years later, the Smiths began to have doubts . . . the quality . . . life . . . their old settlement. 4.“I never knew what to expect . . . the neighbourhood, and I was always worried . . . my family’s safety”. 5.When all the family moved . . . a condominium. . . the lake . . . Washington, they thought this would make life easier. 6.The boys swim . . . an outdoor pool . . . their building and . . . a nearby indoor pool . . . bad weather. 7.Alec doesn’t feel safer . . . his new home than . . . the WHY SOME PEOPLE LEAVE AND SOME COME BACK old one, where he is afraid to go . . . . . . dark. 8.Mr Cox works a ninety-minute drive . . . his city office. 9.I don’t want to work hard every day only to come home and lock myself . . . .
Use the correct word in the sentences below.